What is the difference between a malignant and benign tumor?a. A malignant tumor grows into a large destructive mass, whereas a benign tumor remains very small.b. A benign tumor can be treated, while a malignant tumor cannot be treated.c. A benign tumor grows from a single cell, whereas a malignant tumor arises from multiple cells, making it more difficult to eradicate.d. A malignant tumor proliferates in defiance of normal constraints, while a benign tumor does not. e. A malignant tumor invades and colonizes other tissues, while a benign tumor does not.
What is metastasis?a. the ability of tumor cells to divide uncontrollablyb. the ability of cells to maintain their physiological state despite changing extracellular conditionsc. the instability of chromosomes that occurs when cells become cancerous d. ability of cancer cells to travel from the site of an initial tumor, through the blood or lymph to another location, and form a secondary tumor
ability of cancer cells to travel from the site of an initial tumor, through the blood or lymph to another location, and form a secondary tumor
A normal cell is converted into a cancer cell by:a. an accumulation of mutations affecting several different genes.b. losing its adhesion to its neighboring cells.c. exposure to mitogens released by other cells. d. entering into a specialized cell cycle phase called Go.
Which of the following can increase the likelihood that a person will get cancer? (choose all the correct answers)a. living in, and adopting the lifestyles of certain countriesb. smoking tobaccoc. errors in DNA replication, which occur in all individuals over their lifetimed. being obese e. infection by certain viruses, such as human papilloma virus
Which cancer-causing gene can be activated by a single mutation in only one copy?a. Proto-oncogeneb. DNA repair gene c. Tumor suppressor gene
Which class of cancer-critical gene must be inactivated to promote the development of cancer?a. Oncogeneb. Proto-oncogene c. Tumor suppressor gene
Which of the following properties would you expect a cancerous cell to have?a. decreased adhesion to neighboring cellsb. slower rate of cell divisionc. respond more strongly to signals from other cells for growth and cell divisiond. short telomeres e. increased likelihood of undergoing apoptosis if its DNA is damaged
The gene that encodes p53 isa. a proto-oncogeneb. a tumor suppressorc. none of the above d. an oncogene
The apoptosis promoter Bax normally found in human cells could be considered which of the following?a. carcinogenb. oncogenec. mitogend. tumor suppressor e. proto-oncogene
A certain mutation in the receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGF) causes the mutated receptor protein to send a positive signal along associated intracellular signaling pathway even when EGF is not bound to it. This leads to abnormal cell proliferation in the absence of growth factor. On the basis of this information, how would you class the normal form of the gene for the EGF receptor? a. an oncogene b. a proto-oncogene c. a tumor suppressor d. none of the above