Personal Fall-Restraint Systems

Unfavor the individual fall-arrest mechanism, which is designed to soptimal a autumn, an individual fall-restraint system stays clear of a worker from getting to an undefended edge and also for this reason prevents a fall from developing. The system is composed of an anchorage, connectors, and also a body harness or a body belt. The attachment allude to the body belt or complete body harness have the right to be at the earlier, front, or side D-rings.

The anchorage for a fall-restraint device have to assistance at least 3,000 pounds or be designed and also installed through a security variable of at leastern 2. If you"re not certain exactly how a lot an anchorage will assistance, have a qualified person evaluate it.

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Positioning-Device Systems

Positioning-gadget units make it simpler to job-related via both hands cost-free on a vertical surconfront such as a wall surface or concrete form. Positioning-gadget systems are likewise dubbed Class II work-placing units and work-placing units.


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The components of a positioning-device system - anchorage, connectors, and body support - are similar to those of an individual fall-arremainder system. However before, the devices serve various functions.

A positioning-gadget device provides support and also need to speak a complimentary fall within 2 feet; a personal-fall-arrest device gives no assistance and also should limit free-fall distance to 6 feet.

Anchorage: Positioning-tool units should be secured to an anchorage that have the right to assistance at leastern twice the potential impact of a worker"s fall or 3,000 pounds, whichever is better. Connectors: Connectors need to have a minimum toughness of 5,000 pounds. Snap hooks and also D-rings must be proof-tested to a minimum fill of 3,600 pounds without decreating or breaking. Body support: A body belt is acceptable as part of a positioning-device mechanism. However before, it should limit the arresting force on a worker to 900 pounds and it have the right to just be used for body assistance. A full-body harness is additionally acceptable and also should limit the arrest force to 1,800 pounds. Belts or harnesses need to have actually side D-rings or a single front D-ring for placing. All connectors should have locking attributes to prevent unclipping.

1. Which of the complying with devices makes it less complicated to work-related with both hands totally free on a vertical surchallenge such as a wall surface or concrete form?

a. Personal fall-arremainder device (PFAS) b. Positioning-gadget mechanism c. Safety net device d. Full-body harness mechanism

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A guardrail device is composed of a peak rail, midrail, and also intermediate vertical member. Guardrail systems can also be combined with toeboards that proccasion products from rolling off the walking/functioning surface.

Guardrail devices should be free of anything that could reduced a worker or snag a worker"s apparel. Top rails and also midrails must be at least 1/4-inch thick to reduce the risk of hand lacerations; steel or plastic banding cannot be used for height rails or midrails. Other needs for guardrails:

Wire rope supplied for a top rail need to be noted at leastern eextremely 6 feet with high-visibility material. The peak rail of a guardrail need to be 42 plus or minus 3 inches above the walking/functioning surchallenge. The top-edge height can exceed 45 inches if the device meets all other performance criteria. Midrails need to be installed midmeans between the height rail and the walking/functioning surface unmuch less there is an existing wall or parapet at least 21 inches high. Screens and also mesh are compelled when material might loss between the height rail and midrail or between the midrail and the walking/functioning surface. Intermediate vertical members, as soon as provided rather of midrails in between short articles, must be no even more than 19 inches apart. A guardrail system must be qualified of withstanding a 200-pound force applied within 2 inches of its height edge in any outward or downward direction. Midrails, screens, and intermediate structural members have to withstand at least 150 pounds applied in any downward or exterior direction.

2. The height rail or a guardrail must be _____ inches plus or minus _____ inches above the walking/working surchallenge.

a. 42, 3 b. 42, 5 c. 39, 9 d. 49, 3

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Safety-net devices consist of mesh nets and connecting components.

Safety-net openings can not be more than 6 inches on a side, facility to center. Safety nets should not be installed even more than 30 feet listed below the functioning surface. An mounted net must have the ability to withstand a drop test consisting of a 400-pound sandbag, 30 inches in diameter, dropped from the functioning surconfront. Inspect safety and security nets consistently and rerelocate debris from them no later on than the begin of the following work transition.

The minimum horizontal distance to the net"s outer edge depends on exactly how far below the working surface the net is put.

See the Table of Minimum Horizontal Distances.


Net"s distance below job-related surface Minimum horizontal distance from edge of working surface to net"s external edge
Up to 5 feet 8 feet
5 to 10 feet 10 feet
More than 10 feet 13 feet

3. Safety nets need to not be installed more than _____ below the working surface.

a. 10 feet b. 20 feet c. 30 feet d. 40 feet

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A warning-line devices consist of ropes, wires or chains, and supporting stanchions that note off an area within which occupational deserve to be done without guardrails, personal fall-arrest systems, restraint units, or security nets.

Warning-line units deserve to just be provided for roofing occupational on roofs that have actually slopes of 2:12 or less, vertical to horizontal. The function of the line is to warn roofers that they are close to an unsafeguarded edge.

The warning line must be at leastern 6 feet from an unprotected edge and also satisfy the adhering to criteria:

Be flagged at least eextremely 6 feet via high-visibility product. Be rigged so that the line is 34 to 39 inches from the walking/functioning surchallenge. Have a minimum tensile strength of 500 pounds. Don"t use plastic caution tape for a warning line. Be attached to each stanchion so that anxiety on one area of the line will not reason an adjacent stanchion to pointer over. Stanchions should have the ability to support a force of at least 16 pounds used horizontally in the direction of the roof edge without tipping over.

Those that carry out roofing occupational between the warning line and also an unsafeguarded roof edge have to be defended with personal fall-arremainder units, restraint units, guardrail systems, safety and security monitoring systems, or security nets.


4. While roofing work-related is occurring the warning line must be at leastern _____ from an undefended edge.

a. 6 feet b. 10 feet c. 20 feet d. 30 feet

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Residential Roof Construction

Employees engaged in residential construction tasks 6 feet (1.8 m) or more above lower levels need to be safeguarded by guardrail devices, safety net system, or individual loss arremainder mechanism unless an additional provision in 1926.501(b) offers for an alternative fall security measure.

Exception: When employers deserve to prove that it is infeasible or creates a higher risk to usage these systems, the complying with applies:

Employers and also residential building contractors are allowed to usage alternate approaches of loss security where it is infeasible to use traditional means. Wright here infeasibility is prcooktop, the home builders have the right to implement a autumn security plan, as specified in area 1926.502(k). Tright here is a presumption that it is feasible and will not create a better hazard to implement at leastern among the three fall security devices discussed over. Employers have actually the burden of establishing that it is appropriate to implement a autumn defense arrangement for a certain workplace case, in lieu of implementing guardrail, safety net devices, or loss arremainder units.

5. To use alternate approaches for autumn protection throughout residential building and construction tasks, employers and builders have to execute each of the following EXCEPT _____.

a. prove that primary loss security approaches are infeasible b. construct a composed autumn defense arrangement c. verify that the work will certainly be less than 10 feet above the ground d. prove that utilizing primary systems will create a greater peril

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When various other loss security approaches are not feasible and also a experienced person has developed a created setup, safety surveillance systems might be offered. This is an approach in which a perboy, quite than a mechanical mechanism, advises workers doing repairs as soon as they are in danger of falling. The monitor, who must be a knowledgeable person, is responsible for recognizing fall risks and also warning workers about them. Safety security systems should accomplish the demands of OSHA 29 CFR 1926.502(h). Safety monitoring have the right to be provided only to safeguard those that carry out roofing occupational on roofs that have actually slopes less than or equal to 4 in 12 (vertical to horizontal) and also widths no greater than 50 feet. Safety monitoring on roofs broader than 50 feet is not permitted unless a warning-line mechanism likewise protects the employees.

The safety monitor"s responsibilities:

Recognize loss hazards. Warn employees as soon as they are unmindful of hazards or aren"t working safely. Stay on the same walking/functioning surchallenge as the employees to see them and also to communicate through them while they are working. Avoid any type of other work-related or distracting activity while surveillance the workers.

Only those who are doing roofing work-related are permitted in the area controlled by the safety and security monitor. Mechanical equipment can not be offered or stored in the area.


6. The safety and security monitor provided throughout roofing job-related need to be a _____.

a. qualified perkid b. experienced perkid c. member of the AGC d. registered engineer

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Record platcreates, which consist of a steady platdevelop and an attached conventional guardrail, have the right to safeguard roofers as soon as other units or approaches are not feasible. Platform guidelines:

The platdevelop should not be even more than 18 inches below the eave line of the roof. The platcreate must extfinish horizontally at least 2 feet past the eave line of the roof. The platdevelop have to have actually a traditional guardrail and toeboard. The height guardrail should increase significantly (at least 12 inches) above the eave line of the roof. Install intermediate rails or a solid obstacle between the height rail and the platform to proccasion a worker from sliding under the optimal rail.

Covers for Holes

Simple and reliable once they"re appropriately set up, rigid covers proccasion employees from falling via skylights or momentary openings and holes in walking/functioning surencounters.


Safety criteria for covers:

Will support at least twice (2 times) the maximum meant weight of employees, equipment, and products. Skylights are not considered covers unmuch less they satisfy this toughness requirement. Are secured to prevent accidental displacement. Have full edge bearing on all four sides. Are painted with a distinctive shade or marked via the word HOLE or COVER.

Fences and Barricades

Fences and barricades are warning barriers, normally made from posts and wire or boards, that save human being amethod from hazards such as wells, pits, and shafts.


7. Hole covers will support at least _____ times the maximum supposed weight of employees, equipment, and also materials.

a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5

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You need to safeguard yourself from falling as soon as you occupational on an elevated surchallenge and be aware of those functioning over or listed below you. Protect yourself and others from falling objects with among the complying with methods:

Canopies: Make sure canopies will not collapse or tear from an object"s affect. Toeboards: Toeboards should be least 3½ inches high and strong enough to withstand also a force of at least 50 pounds used downward or outside. Panels and screens: If you must pile material higher than the height edge of a toeboard, install panels or screens to save the material from dropping over the edge. Barricades and fences: Use them to keep people ameans from areas wbelow falling objects can hit them.

When doing overhand bricklaying, keep materials and devices (except stonework and also mortar) at least 4 feet from the functioning edge. When doing roofing work, store products and also equipment at least 6 feet from the roof edge unmuch less there are guardrails along the edge. All piled, grouped, or stacked product near the roof edge should be steady and self-sustaining. No amount of precaution will work-related if employees carry out not use safe occupational methods.


8. Each of the complying with is a means to defend workers from falling objects EXCEPT _____.

a. canopies b. toeboards c. safety nets d. barricades Check your Work

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Worker Fatality Investigations

This California Public Health video describes the occasions that caused a roofing supervisor"s fatality after he dropped 30 feet via a warehouse roof skylight onto a floor. Photographs from the fatality examination are supplemented through scenes reproduced by co-workers who were there that day.