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Subjects > Computer Studies > Form 1 > The Computer SystemThe Computer System
COMPUTER SYSTEMDefinition: Is a arsenal of entities(hardware,software program and liveware) that are designed to get, process, regulate and existing information in a meaningful format.

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COMPONENTS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMComputer hardware - Are physical parts/ intangible components of a computer. eg Input gadgets, output tools, central handling unit and also storage devicesComputer software - likewise recognized as programs or applications. They are classified right into 2 classes namely - sytem software application and also application softwareLiveware - is the computer system user. Also kwon as orgwareor the humanware. The user regulates the computer mechanism to execute on instructions.a) COMPUTER HARDWARE

Hardware describes the physical, tangible computer system devices and devices, which carry out support for major attributes such as input, processing (inner storage, computation and control), output, secondary storage (for data and programs), and interaction.


A computer system is a collection of incorporated tools that input, output, procedure, and store data and also indevelopment. Computer systems are presently developed roughly at leastern one digital processing device. There are five primary hardware components in a computer system: Input, Processing, Storage, Output and also Communication tools.

Are tools supplied for entering information or instructions to the central handling unit. Are classifie according to the approach they usage to enter data.

a) KEYING DEVICESAre tools used to enter information into the computer system making use of a collection of Keys eg Keyboard, key-to- storage and keypad.i) The keyboard

Keyboard (similar to a typewriter) is the major input tool of a computer . It includes 3 forms of keys-- alphanumeric tricks, one-of-a-kind tricks and also attribute tricks. Alphanumeric keys are provided to type all alphabets, numbers and also one-of-a-kind signs like $, %,
, A and so on Special keys such as , , , , and so on are used for special attributes. Function keys such as , , and so on are offered to provide distinct regulates depending on the software used e.g.F5 relots a web page of an internet internet browser. The feature of each and also every vital have the right to be well interpreted just after functioning on a COMPUTER. When any type of crucial is pressed, an electronic signal is developed. This signal is detected by a keyboard encoder that sends a binary code corresponding to the crucial pressed to the CPU. There are many types of keyboards however 101 tricks key-board is the most renowned one.

How the keys are organized

The tricks on your key-board have the right to be split right into numerous teams based on function:

Typing (alphanumeric) keys. These keys include the very same letter, number, punctuation, and also symbol secrets uncovered on a typical typewriter.Special (Control) tricks. These tricks are offered alone or in combicountry with other tricks to perform specific actions. The a lot of commonly provided control tricks are CTRL, ALT, the Windows key, and ESC.Function secrets. The feature tricks are used to perform certain tasks. They are labelled as F1, F2, F3, and so on, as much as F12. The use of these keys differs from regimen to program.Cursor Movement (Navigation) tricks. These keys are offered for relocating around in files or WebPages and also editing and enhancing message. They encompass the arrow tricks, HOME, END, PAGE UP, PAGE DOWN, DELETE, and INSERT and ARROW KEYS.Numeric keypad. The numeric keypad is handy for entering numbers quickly. The secrets are grouped together in a block prefer a typical calculator or including machine.

B. POINTING DEVICESAre gadgets that enter data and instructions right into the computer system making use of a pointer that appears on the screen. The items to be gone into are selected by either pointing to or clicking on them.e.g mice, joystick, touch sensitive display, trackballs i) THE MOUSEA computer mouse is a tiny gadget supplied to point to and also select items on your computer display screen. Although mice come in many forms, the typical computer mouse does look a bit favor an actual computer mouse. It"s little, oblengthy, and also connected to the mechanism unit by a lengthy wire that resembles a tail and the connector which deserve to either be PS/2 or USB. Some more recent mice are wiremuch less.

A mouse normally has actually 2 buttons: a main switch (generally the left button) and a second switch. Many kind of mice likewise have a wheel in between the 2 butlots, which allows you to scroll smoothly through screens of information.

When you relocate the computer mouse through your hand, a guideline on your display screen moves in the very same direction. (The pointer"s appearance could adjust relying on where it"s positioned on your display.) When you desire to select an item, you allude to the item and also then click (press and also release) the main switch. Pointing and also clicking with your mouse is the main means to connect via your computer. Tright here are numerous forms of mice: Mechanical mouse, optical mouse, optical-mechanical mouse and also laser computer mouse.

Basic parts

A mouse commonly has 2 buttons: a major button (generally the left button) and also a secondary switch (generally the ideal button). The main switch is the one you will certainly usage many regularly. Many mice likewise encompass a scroll wheel in between the buttons to help you scroll through files and also WebPperiods even more quickly. On some mice, the scroll wheel can be pressed to act as a 3rd switch. Cutting edge mice might have actually extra butloads that can perdevelop other functions.

Holding and also relocating the mouse

Place your computer mouse beside your key-board on a clean, smooth surchallenge, such as a mouse pad. Hold the computer mouse gently through your index finger relaxing on the major switch and also you thumb resting on the side. To relocate the computer mouse, slide it slowly in any direction. Don"t twist it—keep the front of the computer mouse aimed ameans from you. As you relocate the mouse, a pointer (see picture) on your display screen moves in the very same direction. If you run out of room to move your mouse on your desk or computer mouse pad, simply pick up the mouse and bring it back closer to you.

Pointing to an item frequently reveals a descriptive message about it.The pointer can readjust relying on what you"re pointing at. For example, once you suggest to a link in your internet browser, the pointer transforms from an arrowhead to a hand through a pointing finger .

Most computer mouse actions integrate pointing via pushing one of the mouse butloads. Tbelow are four fundamental ways to usage your computer mouse buttons: clicking, double-clicking, right-clicking, and dragging.

Clicking (single-clicking)

To click an object, allude to the item on the display screen, and then push and release the primary button (usually the left button).

Clicking is many regularly offered to choose (mark) a things or open a menu. This is sometimes referred to as single-clicking or left-clicking.


To double-click an item, suggest to the item on the display, and then click twice conveniently. If the 2 clicks are spaced too much acomponent, they could be taken as 2 individual clicks fairly than as one double-click.

Double-clicking is most regularly supplied to open items on your desktop. For example, you deserve to start a regime or open a folder by double-clicking its icon on the desktop computer.


To right-click an item, suggest to the item on the display screen, and then push and also release the secondary switch (usually the appropriate button).

Right-clicking an object typically display screens a list of things you can carry out through the item. For example, when you right-click the Recycle Bin on your desktop computer, Windows displays a food selection allowing you to open it, empty it, delete it, or see its properties. If you are unsure of what to execute via something, right-click it.

C) SCANNING DEVICESAre devices that capture an object or a file straight from the source. They are classifie according to the modern technology provided to capture information e.g. Scanners and also Document readers.i) ScannersUsed to capture a resource document and converts it into an electronic form. Example are - FlatBed and HandHeld scanners.

ii) Document readersAre records that reads information straight from resource document and convey them as input in the develop of digital signal. eTypes of Document Readersi) Optical Mar Reader (OMR)
ii) Barcode readers
iii) Optical Character Readersb) Magnetic Readers
Reads data utilizing magnetic ink.t offers principle of magnetism to sense information which have been composed making use of magnetised ink.
Is the brain or the heart of a computer. Is additionally recognized as processor and also consist of 3 devices namely - i) Control Unit ( C U) ii) Arithmetic logic Unit ( A L U) iii) Main Memory unit ( M M U)
The device unit is the core of a computer system. Normally it"s a rectangular box placed on or underneath your desk. Inside this box are many type of electronic components that process information. The many important of these components is the central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor, which acts as the "brain" of your computer. Anvarious other component is random access memory (RAM), which temporarily stores indevelopment that the CPU provides while the computer system is on. The information stored in RAM is erased when the computer is turned off.

Almany eincredibly other component of your computer connects to the system unit using cables. The cables plug right into particular ports (openings), commonly on the earlier of the mechanism unit. Hardware that is not component of the system unit is occasionally dubbed a peripheral tool. Peripheral devices have the right to be external such as a mouse, keyboard, printer, monitor, external Zip drive or scanner or internal, such as a CD-ROM drive, CD-R drive or inner modem. Internal peripheral gadgets are regularly referred to as incorporated peripherals.

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There are 2 types according to shape: tower and desktop.

Tower System Unit Deskpeak System Unit

A motherboard (mainboard, system board, planar board or logic board) is the major published circuit board found in computer systems and also other expandable units. It holds many of the vital electronic components of the system, such as the main handling unit (CPU) and memory, and offers connectors for other peripherals.


MotherboardTYPES OF PROCESSORS I) Comples Instruction Set Computers (CISC) ii) Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC)FUNCTIONS OF CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT- Process data- Control sequence of operaions within the computer systems - It gives command to all components of a computer- It control the use of the primary memory in storing of information and also instructions- it gives momentary storage (RAM) and also long-term storage(ROM) of dataTHE CONTROL UNITIs the center of operations for the computer device, it directs the activities of the computer system mechanism.Funlctions of Control Unit