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melt point: 1124 °C density 1.07 g/mL at 20 °C vapor thickness vapor push warehouse temp. No restrictions. solubility H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless form powder (very fine) shade slightly gray certain Gravity 2.66 PH 7.9 (50g/l, H2O, 25℃) Water Solubility dissolve in water. Slightly soluble in alcohol, glycerol. Insoluble in acetone. λmax λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.03λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.02 sensitive Hygroscopic Merck 14,5691 Stability: Stable. Hygroscopic. CAS DataBase recommendation 7487-88-9(CAS DataBase Reference) FDA 21 CFR 184.1443; 582.5443; 175.300 FDA UNII ML30MJ2U7I NIST Chemistry reference Magnesium sulfate(7487-88-9) EPA problem Registry system Magnesium sulfate (7487-88-9)
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Magnesium sulfate chemical Properties,Uses,Production
DescriptionMagnesium sulfate is an not natural salt (chemical compound) containing magnesium, sulfur and also oxygen, through the formula MgSO4. It is strongly hygroscopic and also often encountered together the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4•7H2O), generally called Epsom salt. And also the monohydrate, MgSO4•H2O, is found as the mineral kieserite.In gardening and other agriculture, magnesium sulfate is offered to correct a magnesium or sulfur deficiency in soil.In food preparation, magnesium sulfate is used as a imminent salt in beer manufacturing or offered as a coagulant because that making tofu.In chemistry, anhydrous magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a desiccant in organic synthesis as result of its affinity for water.For naval use, magnesium sulfate heptahydrate is provided to keep the magnesium concentration in maritime aquaria which contain huge amounts of stony corals.For medicine use, it is provided in pregnant women to regulate seizures due to details complications of pregnancy (eg, major toxemia) and to regulate high blood pressure, severe mind function difficulties (encephalopathy), and also seizures in children who have sudden, severe inflammation of the kidney (acute nephritis). Besides, magnesium sulfate is also used together a laxative to relieve occasional constipation.
Chemical PropertiesMagnesium sulfate (MgS04) is a colorless crystal through a bitter, saline taste. The is dissolve in glycerol and used in fireproofing, textile processes, ceramics, cosmetics, and fertilizers.
Chemical PropertiesMagnesium Sulfate is found widely in nature together either a double salt or as a hydrate, colorless crystals,very dissolve in water, soluble in glycerol, sparingly dissolve in alcohol.
Physical propertiesIn your hydrated form, these salts have a pH the 6.0(5.5 come 6.5) in solution. This magnesium sulfates arewhite crystalline solids. Your densities are: 2.66 g/cm3(anhydrous); 2.445 g/cm3 (monohydrate); 1.68 g/cm3(heptahydrate). Solubilities in water are: anhydrous＝ 26.9 g/100 ml (0°C); monohydrate＝ 25.5 g/100 ml (20°C); heptahydrate＝71 g/100 ml (20°C).Magnesium sulfate is uncovered in nature in many saltdeposits and also mineral waters, developing as hydrates ordouble salts. The heptahydrate or Epsom salt to be discoveredin 1695, uncovered inthemineralwater in ~ Epsom. Kieseriteand epsomite room the 2 most important minerals. Otherthan these and also the over hydrates, magnesium sulfate isalso discovered in several other minerals, including langbeinite, leonite,vanthoffite,bloedite,kainite,polyhalite,
UsesIn agriculture and gardening, magnesium sulfate isused to correct magnesium deficiency in soil, sincemagnesium is vital element in the chlorophyllmolecule. It is many commonly used to pottedplants, or to magnesium-hungry crops, such as potatoes,tomatoes, peppers, and roses. The advantage ofmagnesium sulfate over other magnesium compounds(such together dolomitic limestone) is the high solubility.MgSO4 has been supplied in organic synthetic to removewater from nonaqueous solutions before the organicreaction is started. Because it is insoluble in most organicsolvents, its enhancement forms hydrates that can be easilyremoved.Epsom salt is also used to prepare footbaths,intended to soothe sick feet. The reason for the inclusionof the salt is partially cosmetic. However, magnesiumsulfate can also be took in into the skin,reducing inflammation. The is likewise sometimes discovered inbottled mineral water, and as necessary is sometimeslisted in the components thereof. Magnesium sulfate heptahydrateis additionally used to preserve the magnesium concentrationin maritime aquaria which contain large amountsof stony corals as it is progressively depleted in their calcificationprocess, precipitation into calcium carbonate. OralEpsom salt is provided as a saline laxative and forreplacement treatment in “hypomagnesaemia” (lack ofMg2+) in animals and humans. Magnesium sulfatepaste has been offered as one agent because that dehydrating(drawing) boils, carbuncles or abscesses. Magnesiumsulfate solution has additionally been shown to be an effectiveaid in the fight against blemishes and also acne whenapplied straight to problem areas. Magnesiumsulfate, when offered through soaking, can soothe muscle pains and help improve stormy patches in the skin. Soakingin a warm bath comprise Epsom salt (magnesiumsulfate) deserve to be helpful to soothe and relieve herpesoutbreak symptoms, such as itching and lesions relatingto genital herpes or shingles.
UsesMagnesium sulfate is used widely in number of industries consisting of fertilizer, cement, textile, chemicals, and also medicine. In the cement industry, the is provided in production oxysulfate cement. In medicine, the is one analgesic and also cathartic. Vital application of anhydrous magnesium sulfate in the laboratory involves drying essential solvents compelled for syntheses and GC analysis.In the textile industry, magnesium sulfate is provided in finishing composition because that dressing cotton; for weighting and also sizing silk; as a mordant for fixing basic dyestuffs on wool; and also in fireproofing fabrics. It additionally is a component of certain species of electrolytic plating baths; of various photographic solutions; of cosmetics lotions. It is a catalyst carrier; a dietary supplement in livestock feed; a coagulant for rubber and plastic; and also is used in making citric acid and also several magnesium salts, such together magnesium stearate.
Preparationcharacter language magnesium sulfate occurs in nature together the mineral kieserite and epsomite. The salt is mined in big scale from these and other naturally occurring minerals. The salt also is ready in the activities by the activity of sulfuric mountain on magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate adhered to by evaporation and crystallization:MgO + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + H2OMg(OH)2 + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + 2H2OMgCO3 + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + CO2 + H2OCrystallization in ~ temperatures between 1.8 and 48°C returns heptahydrate, MgSO4•7H2O. Below 1.8°C, a dodecahydrate , MgSO4•12H2O crystallizes out. Above 48°C crystals of reduced hydrates form. The anhydrous salt is acquired by heating the heptahydrate at about 500°C in a rotary drum; or dehydrating over 150°C in the existence of sulfuric acid.
DefinitionChEBI: A magnesium salt having actually sulfate together the counterion.
ApplicationMagnesium sulfate is utilized in the potassium chemicals sector for the manufacture of potassium sulfate (from potassium chloride), salt sulfate and also potash magnesia (potassium magnesium sulfate). Magnesium sulfate, particularly as kieserite, is supplied as a fertilizer (ca. 80% of total consumption). It is additionally used in the textile industry, in the manufacture of building and refractory materials, in the pulp industry and also in the production of pet feedstuffs and motor oil additives.
Production MethodsMagnesium sulfate is widely spread in nature, e.g. In salt deposits as kieserite, as Epsom salt MgSO4 . 7H20, in the form of twin salts such together kainite 4KCl . 4MgSO4 . 11H20 and langbeinite K2SO4 . 2MgSO4, and also in brines. Large quantities the kieserite, Epsom salt and anhydrous magnesium sulfate are developed in the processing of potassium salts. Magnesium sulfate is additionally produced by reaction magnesium carbonate or seawatermagnesium hydroxide with sulfuric acid.
IndicationsMagnesium sulfate avoids convulsions in preeclampsiaand directly uncouples excitation–contraction inmyometrial cells through inhibition of cellular actionpotentials. Furthermore, magnesium sulfate decreasescalcium absorb by competing for its binding sites, activatingadenylyl cyclase (thereby reduce intracellularcalcium), and also stimulating calcium-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase), which disclosure calcium uptakeby the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Magnesium is filteredby the glomerulus, therefore patients through low glomerularfiltration will have low magnesium clearance.Although the compound does have actually some cardiac side effects, magnesium sulfate may be preferred over β-adrenergic agents in patients with heart disease, diabetes,hypertension, or hyperthyroidism.
Biological FunctionsMagnesium sulfate might be reliable in end refractoryventricular tachyarrhythmias, an especially polymorphicventricular tachycardia. Digitalis-induced arrhythmiasare more likely in the existence of magnesiumdeficiency. Magnesium sulfate have the right to be administeredorally, intramuscularly, or, preferably, intravenously,when a rapid an answer is intended.The loss of deep tendonreflexes is a sign of overdose.
Agricultural UsesMagnesium sulphate is a white compound existing both inanhydrous (rhombic) and also hydrated crystalline forms. Themonohydrate MgSO4·H2O (monoclinic) wake up in natureas kieserite. The is a greyish-white crystalline powderwhich contains about 16 % magnesium and also is provided as afertilizer. It is pertained to as a concentrated kind of epsomsalt, having less water that crystallization. The commonesthydrate is heptahydrate MgSO4·7H2O(also calledrhombic or epsom salt) i m sorry occurs normally as themineral epsomite. That is a white powder v a bitter,saline taste. The salt in the monocliic kind loses itsstructural water at 150°C, if the rhombic form loseswater at 200°C. Magnesium sulphate is used in sizing and freproofngcotton and silk, in tanning leather, in the to produce offertilizers, in explosives and also matches, in drugs as alaxative, and also as a veterinary medicine for the therapy ofinflammations and also infected wounds.
Clinical Useover there is much debate as to the efficacy of magnesiumsulfate. For efficient inhibition that uterine activity,enough should be offered to keep a blood plasma levelof at the very least 5.5 mEq/L. Even at this level, tocolysis maybe tough to achieve.
Side effectsThe side impacts of magnesium sulfate management are sheep dependent. As magnesium level increase, skeletal muscle weakness increases and also CNS depression and vascular dilation occur. Magnesium sulfate infusion generally results in a slight decrease in blood pressure throughout epidural anesthesia.Cardiac muscle is not impacted to a clinically apparent degree once magnesium is administered at therapeutic levels, return magnesium can have profound myocardial effects throughout a gun overdose.Magnesium antagonizes the vasoconstrictive result of α-agonists, so ephedrine and also phenylephrine are likely to less properly increase maternal blood pressure as soon as administered concomitantly through magnesium.Magnesium is got rid of unchanged through the kidneys. In a patient that is receiving a maintain infusion the magnesium and who has decreasing urine output, blood level of magnesium conveniently increase, as perform related side effects.Other side effects of magnesium sulfate incorporate the following: (1) Cutaneous vasodilation through flushing (2) Headache and also dizziness (3) Nausea (4) skeletal muscle weakness (5) Depression that deep tendon reflexes (6) respiratory depression (7) ECG changes
Safety ProfileA toxicity by intravenous route. Moderately toxicity by ingestion, intraperitoneal, and also subcutaneous routes. Human systemic effects: heart changes, cyanosis, flaccid paralysis with suitable anesthesia. An speculative teratogen. Mutation data reported. Perhaps explosive reaction when heated through ethoxyethynyl alcohols (e.g., l-ethoxy3-methyl-1-butyn-3-01). As soon as heated come decomposition it emits toxicity fumes that SOx. See also SULFATES.
Purification MethodsCrystallise the from heat H2O (1g/mL) through cooling. Dried the heptahydrate (Epsom salt) at ~250o till it loser 25% the its weight. The solubility in H2O is 36% at 20o, 55% at 60o and 74% in ~ 100o; above 110o the solubility reduce with climb of temperature. Store it in a sealed container.
PrecautionsMagnesium sulfate is not for usage in patients through heart block or considerable myocardial damage. Use it through caution in patients with impaired renal function, in digitalized patients, and with concomitant usage of other main nervous mechanism depressants or neuromuscular blocking agents. Intravenous administration is contraindicated during the 2 hrs preceding delivery. Oral management is contraindicated in patient with ab pain, nausea, vomiting, fecal impaction, or intestinal irritation, obstruction, or perforation.
References1. Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium_sulfate2. Https://www.drugs.com/cdi/magnesium-sulfate.html3.
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