CAS No. 7487-88-9 Chemical Name: Magnesium sulfate Synonyms DBO2;MgSO4;Salts;Dried;Hair salt;Nsc146179;Sal amarum;salangalis;nesium suL;TBS TABLETS CBNumber: CB9122608 Molecular Formula: MgSO4 Formula Weight: 120.37 MOL File: 7487-88-9.mol
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Melting point: 1124 °C Density 1.07 g/mL at 20 °C vapor density vapor pressure storage temp. no restrictions. solubility H2O: 1 M at 20 °C, clear, colorless form powder (very fine) color slightly gray Specific Gravity 2.66 PH 7.9 (50g/l, H2O, 25℃) Water Solubility Soluble in water. Slightly soluble in alcohol, glycerol. Insoluble in acetone. λmax λ: 260 nm Amax: 0.03λ: 280 nm Amax: 0.02 Sensitive Hygroscopic Merck 14,5691 Stability: Stable. Hygroscopic. CAS DataBase Reference 7487-88-9(CAS DataBase Reference) FDA 21 CFR 184.1443; 582.5443; 175.300 FDA UNII ML30MJ2U7I NIST Chemistry Reference Magnesium sulfate(7487-88-9) EPA Substance Registry System Magnesium sulfate (7487-88-9)
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Magnesium sulfate Chemical Properties,Uses,Production
Magnesium sulfate is an inorganic salt (chemical compound) containing magnesium, sulfur and oxygen, with the formula MgSO4. It is strongly hygroscopic and often encountered as the heptahydrate sulfate mineral epsomite (MgSO4•7H2O), commonly called Epsom salt. And the monohydrate, MgSO4•H2O, is found as the mineral kieserite.In gardening and other agriculture, magnesium sulfate is used to correct a magnesium or sulfur deficiency in soil.In food preparation, magnesium sulfate is used as a brewing salt in beer production or used as a coagulant for making tofu.In chemistry, anhydrous magnesium sulfate is commonly used as a desiccant in organic synthesis due to its affinity for water.For Marine use, magnesium sulfate heptahydrate is used to maintain the magnesium concentration in marine aquaria which contain large amounts of stony corals.For medicine use, it is used in pregnant women to control seizures due to certain complications of pregnancy (eg, severe toxemia) and to control high blood pressure, severe brain function problems (encephalopathy), and seizures in children who have sudden, severe inflammation of the kidneys (acute nephritis). Besides, magnesium sulfate is also used as a laxative to relieve occasional constipation.
Magnesium sulfate (MgS04) is a colorless crystal with a bitter, saline taste. It is soluble in glycerol and used in fireproofing, textile processes, ceramics, cosmetics, and fertilizers.
Magnesium Sulfate is found widely in nature as either a double salt or as a hydrate, colorless crystals,very soluble in water, soluble in glycerol, sparingly soluble in alcohol.
In their hydrated form, these salts have a pH of 6.0(5.5 to 6.5) in solution. These magnesium sulfates arewhite crystalline solids. Their densities are: 2.66 g/cm3(anhydrous); 2.445 g/cm3 (monohydrate); 1.68 g/cm3(heptahydrate). Solubilities in water are: anhydrous＝ 26.9 g/100 ml (0°C); monohydrate＝ 25.5 g/100 ml (20°C); heptahydrate＝71 g/100 ml (20°C).Magnesium sulfate is found in nature in many saltdeposits and mineral waters, occurring as hydrates ordouble salts. The heptahydrate or Epsom salt was discoveredin 1695, found inthemineralwater at Epsom. Kieseriteand epsomite are the two most important minerals. Otherthan these and the above hydrates, magnesium sulfate isalso found in several other minerals, including langbeinite, leonite,vanthoffite,bloedite,kainite,polyhalite,
In agriculture and gardening, magnesium sulfate isused to correct magnesium deficiency in soil, sincemagnesium is an essential element in the chlorophyllmolecule. It is most commonly applied to pottedplants, or to magnesium-hungry crops, such as potatoes,tomatoes, peppers, and roses. The advantage ofmagnesium sulfate over other magnesium compounds(such as dolomitic limestone) is its high solubility.MgSO4 has been used in organic synthesis to removewater from nonaqueous solutions before the organicreaction is started. Since it is insoluble in most organicsolvents, its addition forms hydrates that can be easilyremoved.Epsom salt is also used to prepare footbaths,intended to soothe sore feet. The reason for the inclusionof the salt is partially cosmetic. However, magnesiumsulfate can also be absorbed into the skin,reducing inflammation. It is also sometimes found inbottled mineral water, and accordingly is sometimeslisted in the contents thereof. Magnesium sulfate heptahydrateis also used to maintain the magnesium concentrationin marine aquaria which contain large amountsof stony corals as it is slowly depleted in their calcificationprocess, precipitation into calcium carbonate. OralEpsom salt is used as a saline laxative as well as forreplacement therapy in “hypomagnesaemia” (lack ofMg2+) in animals and humans. Magnesium sulfatepaste has been used as an agent for dehydrating(drawing) boils, carbuncles or abscesses. Magnesiumsulfate solution has also been shown to be an effectiveaid in the fight against blemishes and acne whenapplied directly to problematic areas. Magnesiumsulfate, when used through soaking, can soothe muscle pains and help improve rough patches in the skin. Soakingin a warm bath containing Epsom salt (magnesiumsulfate) can be beneficial to soothe and relieve herpesoutbreak symptoms, such as itching and lesions relatingto genital herpes or shingles.
Magnesium sulfate is used widely in several industries including fertilizer, cement, textile, chemicals, and medicine. In the cement industry, it is used in manufacturing oxysulfate cement. In medicine, it is an analgesic and cathartic. An important application of anhydrous magnesium sulfate in the laboratory involves drying organic solvents required for syntheses and GC analysis.In the textile industry, magnesium sulfate is used in finishing composition for dressing cotton; for weighting and sizing silk; as a mordant for fixing basic dyestuffs on wool; and in fireproofing fabrics. It also is a component of certain types of electrolytic plating baths; of various photographic solutions; of cosmetic lotions. It is a catalyst carrier; a dietary supplement in cattle feed; a coagulant for rubber and plastic; and is used in making citric acid and several magnesium salts, such as magnesium stearate.
Hydrated magnesium sulfate occurs in nature as the minerals kieserite and epsomite. The salt is mined in large scale from these and other naturally occurring minerals. The salt also is prepared in the laboratory by the action of sulfuric acid on magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate followed by evaporation and crystallization:MgO + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + H2OMg(OH)2 + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + 2H2OMgCO3 + H2SO4 → MgSO4 + CO2 + H2OCrystallization at temperatures between 1.8 and 48°C yields heptahydrate, MgSO4•7H2O. Below 1.8°C, a dodecahydrate , MgSO4•12H2O crystallizes out. Above 48°C crystals of lower hydrates form. The anhydrous salt is obtained by heating the heptahydrate at about 500°C in a rotary drum; or dehydrating above 150°C in the presence of sulfuric acid.
ChEBI: A magnesium salt having sulfate as the counterion.
Magnesium sulfate is utilized in the potassium chemicals industry for the manufacture of potassium sulfate (from potassium chloride), sodium sulfate and potash magnesia (potassium magnesium sulfate). Magnesium sulfate, particularly as kieserite, is used as a fertilizer (ca. 80% of total consumption).
It is also used in the textile industry, in the manufacture of building and refractory materials, in the pulp industry and in the production of animal feedstuffs and motor oil additives.
Magnesium sulfate is widely distributed in nature, e.g. in salt deposits as kieserite, as Epsom salt MgSO4 . 7H20, in the form of double salts such as kainite 4KCl . 4MgSO4 . 11H20 and langbeinite K2SO4 . 2MgSO4, and in brines. Large quantities of kieserite, Epsom salt and anhydrous magnesium sulfate are produced in the processing of potassium salts. Magnesium sulfate is also produced by reacting magnesium carbonate or seawatermagnesium hydroxide with sulfuric acid.
Magnesium sulfate prevents convulsions in preeclampsiaand directly uncouples excitation–contraction inmyometrial cells through inhibition of cellular actionpotentials. Furthermore, magnesium sulfate decreasescalcium uptake by competing for its binding sites, activatingadenylyl cyclase (thereby reducing intracellularcalcium), and stimulating calcium-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase (ATPase), which promotes calcium uptakeby the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Magnesium is filteredby the glomerulus, so patients with low glomerularfiltration will have low magnesium clearance.Although the compound does have some cardiac side effects, magnesium sulfate may be preferred over β-adrenergic agents in patients with heart disease, diabetes,hypertension, or hyperthyroidism.
Magnesium sulfate may be effective in terminating refractoryventricular tachyarrhythmias, particularly polymorphicventricular tachycardia. Digitalis-induced arrhythmiasare more likely in the presence of magnesiumdeficiency. Magnesium sulfate can be administeredorally, intramuscularly, or, preferably, intravenously,when a rapid response is intended.The loss of deep tendonreflexes is a sign of overdose.
Magnesium sulphate is a white compound existing both inanhydrous (rhombic) and hydrated crystalline forms. Themonohydrate MgSO4·H2O (monoclinic) occurs in natureas kieserite. It is a greyish-white crystalline powderwhich contains about 16 % magnesium and is used as afertilizer. It is regarded as a concentrated form of epsomsalt, having less water of crystallization. The commonesthydrate is heptahydrate MgSO4·7H2O(also calledrhombic or epsom salt) which occurs naturally as themineral epsomite. It is a white powder with a bitter,saline taste. The salt in the monocliic form loses itsstructural water at 150°C, while the rhombic form loseswater at 200°C. Magnesium sulphate is used in sizing and freproofngcotton and silk, in tanning leather, in the manufacture offertilizers, in explosives and matches, in medicines as alaxative, and as a veterinary medicine for the treatment ofinflammations and infected wounds.
There is much debate as to the efficacy of magnesiumsulfate. For effective inhibition of uterine activity,enough must be given to maintain a blood plasma levelof at least 5.5 mEq/L. Even at this level, tocolysis maybe hard to achieve.
The side effects of magnesium sulfate administration are dose dependent. As magnesium levels increase, skeletal muscle weakness increases and CNS depression and vascular dilation occur. Magnesium sulfate infusion commonly results in a slight decrease in blood pressure during epidural anesthesia.Cardiac muscle is not affected to a clinically evident degree when magnesium is administered at therapeutic levels, although magnesium can have profound myocardial effects during a gross overdose.Magnesium antagonizes the vasoconstrictive effect of α-agonists, so ephedrine and phenylephrine are likely to less effectively increase maternal blood pressure when administered concomitantly with magnesium.Magnesium is eliminated unchanged by the kidneys. In a patient who is receiving a maintenance infusion of magnesium and who has decreasing urine output, blood levels of magnesium quickly increase, as do related side effects.Other side effects of magnesium sulfate include the following: (1) Cutaneous vasodilation with flushing (2) Headache and dizziness (3) Nausea (4) Skeletal muscle weakness (5) Depression of deep tendon reflexes (6) Respiratory depression (7) ECG changes
A poison by intravenous route. Moderately toxic by ingestion, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous routes. Human systemic effects: heart changes, cyanosis, flaccid paralysis with appropriate anesthesia. An experimental teratogen. Mutation data reported. Potentially explosive reaction when heated with ethoxyethynyl alcohols (e.g., l-ethoxy3-methyl-1-butyn-3-01). When heated to decomposition it emits toxic fumes of SOx. See also SULFATES.
Crystallise it from warm H2O (1g/mL) by cooling. Dry the heptahydrate (Epsom salt) at ~250o until it loses 25% of its weight. Its solubility in H2O is 36% at 20o, 55% at 60o and 74% at 100o; above 110o the solubility decreases with rise of temperature. Store it in a sealed container.
Magnesium sulfate is not for use in patients with heart block or extensive myocardial damage. Use it with caution in patients with impaired renal function, in digitalized patients, and with concomitant use of other central nervous system depressants or neuromuscular blocking agents. Intravenous administration is contraindicated during the 2 hours preceding delivery. Oral administration is contraindicated in patients with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fecal impaction, or intestinal irritation, obstruction, or perforation.
1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnesium_sulfate2. https://www.drugs.com/cdi/magnesium-sulfate.html3. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/magnesium_sulfate4. http://www.emedicinehealth.com/drug-magnesium_sulfate/article_em.htm