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111. A famous psychologist argues that there are three factors that influence personality: environment, person, and behavior. This psychologist is most likely a ______ psychologist.a) psychodynamicb) social cognitivec) psychoanalyticd) trait112. What is Albert Bandura’s term for the relationship among the three factors that influence personality?a) feedback loopsb) learned responsesc) reciprocal.

 141. Research suggests that as little as _____ minutes of meditation can produce lowered blood pressure in those with hypertension.a) 20b) 30c) 45d) 60142. If Drew is practicing a relaxation technique called receptive meditation, he is most likely_______.a) trying to expand consciousness outwardb) using biofeedback equipmentc) focusing on the sound.

11. Dropping out of school, engaging in fantasy, and using drugs are all examples of withdrawal from frustration.12. Once seated at his favorite restaurant, Malik was torn between ordering a turkey sandwich and ordering a plate of lasagna. He loves both equally, and is struggling to make a choice. Malik.

21. Alex is standing in line at Wal-Mart waiting to pay for his purchases. A man cuts in front of the line and drops his items on the counter. Alex says, “That man is incredibly rude." Alex just made a situational attribution.22. People from collectivist cultures are more likely to.

91. Which term was given to psychoanalysts who broke away from strict interpretation of Freud’s theory and developed theories of their own that were based upon Freud’s work?a)retro-Freudiansb)nouveau-Freudiansc)neo-Freudiansd)anti-Freudians92. Jung believed that there were two levels to the unconscious mind, the personal and the ________.a) collectiveb) animusc) animad) preconscious93. According to.

181. Which type of love is defined as having only intimacy and commitment?a) seductionb) emptyc) infatuationd) companionate182. Which of the following parts of the brain are related to aggression?a) the amygdalab) the limbic systemc) neither A nor Bd) both A and B183. The hormone associated with aggression seems to be.

51. Anthony is sick of writing papers and studying for tests, but he knows he needs a college degree if he wants to be successful in his chosen career. So every morning Anthony gives himself a dressing down - in essence yelling at himself - to make himself get out.

 41. The job of the _________ is to find practical ways for the _________ to get its pleasure needs met without offending the morality of the ________.a) id; ego, superegob) ego; id; superegoc) ego; superego; idd) superego; id; ego42. Yongmei is studying for her math test. Her boyfriend Marcus asks.

11. Social loafing occurs when a member of a team slows down, letting others work harder.12. An attitude has four major components.13. Research suggests that we are more easily influenced by an attractive speaker than by an unattractive speaker.14. Research suggests that we are more easily influenced by an unattractive.

21. Freud named the most primitive part of the personality the id, which is a Latin word that means __________.a) “sex”b) “pleasure”c) “I”d) “it”22. When Freud referred to the sexual drive of babies and young children, to what was he really referring?a) the fact that sexual orientation is established from.

191. What term do psychologists use for the phenomenon that occurs when people are less likely to aid a person in trouble if there are other people around who are also potential helpers?a) bystander effectb) sole-witness effectc) subtle aggressive effectd) antisocial behavior effect192. A car crash woke John from his.

21. Research has found that something as simple as reading a good book can help individuals to keep a positive and optimistic outlook.22. One of the more serious effects of workplace stress is a condition called burnout.23. Guillermo has recently moved to the United States, but has decided to live.

171. Using Hofstede’s terms, how would you describe a cultural personality in which the majority of the members of the culture accept that power is in the hands of the few?a) individualisticb) high in power distancec) masculined) low in power distance172. According to Hofstede’s dimensions of cultural personality, cultures that.

81. Which of the following is NOT one of the three major components of attitudes?a) thoughtsb) feelingsc) goalsd) behaviors82. You want to visit Argentina but your attitude about Argentina is changing as you read the news about the kidnappings that have occurred there. Which component of attitude is being affected?a).

141. Which one of the goals of psychology would be most relevant in the trait perspective?a) descriptionb). explanationc) maintenanced) control142. Which theories are less concerned with the explanation for personality development and changing personality than they are with describing personality and predicting behavior based on that description?a) trait theoriesb) psychodynamic.

 TRUE OR FALSE1. Sociology and social psychology are basically the same disciplines, since they mostly study identical things.2. Giving in to pressure to change your behavior and thoughts to be like others is called obedience.3. Research has found a substantial difference in the tendency of men and women to show.

91. What is the relationship between expertise and persuasion?a) Expertise has no effect on persuasion.b) Nonexperts tend to be the most persuasive.c) Greater expertise leads to greater persuasion.d) Communicators with moderate expertise are the most persuasive.92. Expertise, attractiveness, and trustworthiness all relate to which factor of persuasion?a) channelb) messagec) sourced).

 TRUE OR FALSE1. Sigmund Freud proposed that his patients’ disorders resulted most often from psychological conflicts related to sex.2. The id operates according to the reality principle.3. Steve is extremely uptight and compulsively neat and orderly. According to Freudian theory, he became fixated at the oral stage of psychosexual development.4..

101. Which one of the following activities will NOT reduce cognitive dissonance?a) changing the behavior to match the attitudeb) changing the thought to justify the behaviorc) developing new thoughts to justify the behaviord) continuing the behavior in spite of the conflicting thoughts102. Luis picks up a pack of cigarettes and.

71. Dan plays the trumpet, is on the debate team, bites his nails, and chews gum. Freud might say Dan was fixated in the ________ stage.a) oralb) analc) phallicd) genital72. According to Freud’s theory of personality development, there are ________ stages that each person must pass through.a) 3b) 5c) 7d).

151. Which of the following is NOT one of the processes associated with social identity theory?a) social categorizationb) identificationc) authoritarianismd) social comparison152. According to social identity theory, individuals view their own group favorably so as to ________.a) create prejudice toward members of the other group.b) think of themselves more favorablyc).

161. The classic Robber’s Cave study showed that prejudice can be reduced by ________.a) mere exposureb) relearning social normsc) cooperating to meet a mutually beneficial goald) rethinking one’s stereotypes162. All of the following are ways to reduce prejudice EXCEPT ______________.a) mutual interdependenceb) equal status contactc) scapegoatingd) intergroup contact163. Increased contact.

 131. What do social psychologists call the tendency to rely on internal characteristics for explanations of the behavior of others and to ignore the influence of the situation?a) availability heuristicb) augmenting principlec) self-fulfilling prophecyd) fundamental attribution error132. While watching Jeopardy, your roommate says, “Alex Trebek knows all the answers. He.

1. Social psychology is the scientific study of how a person’s behavior, thoughts, and feelings are influenced by _______.a) cognitionb) mental processesc) the real, imagined, or implied presence of othersd) psychology2. Social psychology differs from psychology in its focus on ______.a) people’s susceptibility to clever advertisingb) the influences of the.

 121. Sasha is experiencing stress in her workplace that is causing her to feel dissatisfied and pessimistic. As a result, she has a desire to quit her job. Sasha is experiencing________.a) road rageb) eustressc) poverty-related stressd) burnout122. The stress resulting from the need to change and adapt to the dominant,.

181. A person’s responses to a projective test are thought to reflect ____________.a) current eventsb) daydreaming themesc) maladaptive patterns of behaviord) unconscious thoughts and feelings182. When Anna looks at some modern artwork at the museum, she often thinks she sees human figures or faces and likes to make up stories.

151. What are the Big Five personality traits?a) conscientiousness, openness, agreeableness, extraversion, dominanceb) openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticismc) sensation seeking, conscientiousness, openness, agreeableness, dominanced) neuroticism, psychoticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness152. An investigation of students’ housing preferences would probably show that single rooms are preferred by _______whereas suites are preferred.

141. A social group of people viewed as competitors, enemies, or different and unworthya) pariahb) in-groupc) threat-groupd) out-group142. The social group viewed as the one a person identifies with is called a (an) ________.a) pariahb) in-groupc) threat-groupd) out-group143. Realistic conflict theory suggests that prejudice arises from ________.a) learned behaviorb) competition.

 161. Monozygotic twins are __________, while dizygotic twins are __________.a) the result of mitosis; the result of meiosisb) fraternal; identicalc) always the same gender; always the opposite gendersd) identical; fraternal162. What major conclusion about personality traits emerged from the Minnesota twin study?a) Identical twins are more similar than any other.

41. Hannah asks Jin to babysit her daughter for five hours each on both Saturday and then Sunday. Once Jin declines, Hannah asks Jin to babysit for four hours on Saturday only and Jin agrees to do it. This example demonstrates the ________ technique.a) foot-in-the-doorb) foot-in-the-mouthc) door-in-the-faced) lowball42. You get.

131. Research has consistently shown that having a good _________ is of critical importance in a person’s ability to cope with stressors.a) friendshipb) camaraderiec) therapistd) social support system132. People with a good _________are less likely to die from illness or injuries than those without it.a) occupationb) camaraderiec) incomed) social support.

51. The study of obedience took on a renewed importance in the wake of ________.a) the September 11, 2001 attacksb) President Clinton’s impeachmentc) President Kennedy’s assassinationd) the Holocaust during World War II52. What is a difference between obedience and conformity?a) In obedience there is a difference in status between the.

MULTIPLE CHOICE1. The unique and relatively stable ways in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels is called __________.a) personalityb) nurturec) a traitd) nature2. Which of the following statements describes the relationship between temperament and personality?a) temperament and personality are the exact same thing.b) personality, which we are born with,.

 TRUE OR FALSE1. Stress is the process of responding physically, emotionally, cognitively, and behaviorally to events that are perceived to be threatening or challenging.2. Research in health psychology finds that most people live stress-free on a regular basis, and those who encounter daily stress are more likely to develop medical.

61. What is the term for an improvement in performance caused by the perception that others are watching?a) social loafingb) social idlenessc) social facilitationd) social productivity62. Marco accepts a request to play the piano at his church’s Sunday services even though he is still learning how to play the piano..

131. Carl Rogers emphasized accepting people for what they are, not for what you would like them to be. This acceptance is termed ___________.a) conditional esteemb) unconditional esteemc) conditional positive regardd) unconditional positive regard132. Carl Rogers believed people question themselves and experience negative effects on their self-concept when they receive.

71. How can a coach get his football team to perform better if he suspects they are exhibiting social loafing?a) introduce new challengesb) get the captain to apply pressurec) grade their individual performancesd) ignore the behavior72. Which of the following terms is associated with social cognition?a) thinking about othersb) actionc).

21. Close, friendly groups usually work well together, but they may face a problem involving an extreme form of conformity called ______________.a) fundamental attribution errorb) groupthinkc) generational identityd) self-serving bias22. After a group of gang members learned that their friend had died in a seemingly random accident, several of the.

 111. Which part of the brain has been identified as being particularly active when people experience cognitive dissonance?a) the left frontal cortexb) the anterior amygdalac) the ascending pyramidal tracksd) the dorsolateral hypothalamus112. What is the term for the process of developing our first knowledge about another person?a) social interactionb) stereotypingc).

191. An assessment in which a numerical value is assigned to specific behavior(s) that is/are listed on the assessment is called a ____________.a) rating scaleb) frequency countc) projective testd) interview192. Personality assessments conducted by behaviorists rely primarily on ____________.a) projective testsb) direct observationc) detailed analysis of dreamsd) interviews193. Personality assessments.

81. The Freudian stage in which boys must resolve the Oedipus complex is the ______ stage.a) genitalb) oralc) phallicd) anal82. According to Freud, the stage in which children develop a marked attachment to the parent of the opposite sex and become jealous of the same-sex parent is the ______.a) anal.

61. Mahmoud was just told that his father has cancer. Mahmoud’s first response is that there must be a mistake and he demands that the doctor repeat his tests. Which defense mechanism is at work here?a) reaction formationb) denialc) repressiond) undoing62. Jeromy has been having an affair with another woman..

11. Asch’s studies showed that overall conformity to group pressure occurred abouta) one-fifthb) one-thirdc) one-halfd) three-fourths12. In Solomon Asch’s study, which factor increased the rate of conformity?a) The task difficulty was increasedb) The confederates were all adultsc) The number of confederates increasedd) The participants were given two chances at responding13..

 11. Charise and Noreen were having a conversation about men. “You know,” Noreen said, “I think my husband tries to annoy me! Even though he tries to do what I ask, I think that subconsciously he really enjoys ticking me off to see the reactions he’ll get. Freud must have.

121. Attributions are __________________.a) explanations that account for one’s own behaviors and/or the behaviors of others.b) innate personality traitsc) genetic predispositions to behave a certain wayd) physical qualities people have such as attractiveness122. Your best friend has been acting rather cool toward you lately. As you try to figure out.

121. Attributions __________________.a) explanations that account for one’s own behaviorsPsychology

31. For Freud, the seething cauldron of unconscious urges and desires continuously seeking expression is the ________.a) superegob) idc) egod) persona32. There were three friends. Maybe you’ve heard of them! Harry was rational, logical, and cunning. Hermione was rule oriented, moral, and always ethical. Ron was pleasure seeking, found it.

 171. “Out of sight, out of mind” is a cliché that is consistent with the _____________ rule of interpersonal attraction.a) physical attractivenessb) similarityc) proximityd) reciprocal liking172. The cliché “familiarity breeds contempt” contradicts which of the rules of interpersonal attraction?a. reciprocal likingb. physical attractivenessc. similarityd. proximity173. “Birds of a feather” is.

121. The perceived source of control over one’s life is:a) the locus of control.b) mode of operation.c) the motivation to change.d) self-esteem.122. Shanda is afraid of failing one of her final exams, primarily because she thinks the professor gives hard exams and so, no matter how much studying she does,.

31. ______ is a change of behavior in response to a direct request.a) Conformityb) Obediencec) Complianced) Deindividuation32. Many people hang up on telemarketers, but others will listen politely to their pitches even if they are not interested in the product. Telemarketers know that anyone who agrees to listen to a.

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101. According to Karen Horney, men had __________.a) penis envyb) breast envyc) womb envyd) vagina envy102. According to Karen Horney, what causes us to develop a neurotic personality?a) getting fixated at the oral stage of developmentb) being raised without love, affection, and securityc) failing to adequately resolve the Oedipus complexd).