Whereas cosmopolitan conservatives often sustained worldwide collaboration and also admired elite society in various other nations, fascists espooffered too much nationalism and also cultural parochialism. Fascist ideologues taught that national identification was the foundation of individual identification and must not be corrupted by international influences, particularly if they were left-wing. Nazism condemned Marxist and also liberal internationalisms as dangers to Gerguy national unity. Fascists in general wanted to replace internationalist class solidarity via nationalist class collaboration. The Italian, French, and also Spanish notion of integral nationalism was hostile to individualism and political pluralism. Unlike autonomous conservatives, fascists accused their political enemies of being much less “patriotic” than they, periodically even labeling them “traitors.” Portuguese fascists spoke of “inner foreigners” who were “antination.” In the 1930s some French fascist organizations even rejected the label “fascist,” lest they be regarded as beholden to Germany kind of.

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In France, immigrants—especially left-wing immigrants—were special targets of fascist nationalism. Jean Renaud of French Solidarity demanded that all foreigners seeking residence in France be rigorously screened and that the unfit be denied entry “without pity”—particularly social revolutionaries, that made France “not a refuge for the oppressed however a depository for trash.” In 1935 La Rocque blamed Hitler for driving German refugees into France and also condemned the “foolish sentimentality” that prompted the government to accept them. He additionally criticized France’s naturalization policies for permitting cities choose Marseille and also Paris to be inundated by a climbing tide of “undesirables.” France, he declared, had actually end up being the shepherd of “a swarming, virulent mob of outlaws,” some of whom, under the pretext of fleeing Nazi persecution, were really infiltrating France as spies.

Scapegoating

Fascists regularly blamed their countries’ difficulties on scapegoats. Jews, Freemasons, Marxists, and also immigrants were prominent among the teams that were demonized. According to fascist propaganda, the long depression of the 1930s resulted less from inadequate government regulation of the economic situation or insufficient lower-course purchasing power than from “Judeo-Masonic-bolshevik” conspiracies, left-wing agitation, and also the visibility of immigrants. The implication was that depriving these demons of their power and influence would certainly reason the nation’s major problems to go away.

Populism

Fascists pelevated the Volk and also pandered to populist anti-intellectualism. Nazi art criticism, for instance, uphosted the populist watch that the common man was the best judge of art and also that art that did not appeal to renowned taste was decadent. Also populist was the Nazi propaganda theme that Hitler was a “brand-new man” who had “emerged from the depth of the human being.” Unprefer left-wing populism, fascist populism did not attribute workers’ hardships to substantial organization and also massive landowners and did not advocate actions such as progressive tax, better pay for industrial and also farm workers, protection of unions, and the appropriate to strike. In general it spared the wealth of the upper classes—other than that belonging to Jews.

Revolutionary image

Fascists periodically portrayed their movements as “new” and also “revolutionary,” a picture that appealed not just to the young but to older literary modernists such as Filippo Marinetti, T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, Wyndham Lewis, William Butler Yeats, D.H. Lawrence, and Paul de Man. However, dozens of fascist writers likewise pelevated social traditionalism, or “rootedness.” Under the Third Reich, Goebbels subsidized an exhibition of modern art not to celebprice its glory yet to disclose its decadence; he called it simply the “Exhibition of Degeneprice Art.” Fascism’s clintends to newness did not prevent its propagandists from pandering to fearful traditionalists who connected cultural modernism via secular humanism, feminism, sexual license, and the destruction of the Christian household.

Antiurbanism

Fascists additionally pandered to antimetropolitan feelings. The Nazis won most of their electdental assistance from rural locations and little communities. In Nazi propaganda the right German was not an city intellectual but an easy peasant, and also uprooted intellectualism was taken into consideration a hazard to the deep, irrational sources of the Volk heart. Jews were regularly portrayed—and also therefore condemned—as quintnecessary city dwellers. In 1941 La Rocque commented: “The theory of ‘family members of excellent stock that have their roots in the earth’ leads us to conclusions not much from Wtransform Darre, Minister of Agriculture for the Reich.” Romanian fascism relied heavily on the assistance of landed peasants that distrusted the “wicked” city. The agrarian wing of Japanese fascism pelevated the peasant soldier and denigrated the commercial worker.

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Sexism and also misogyny


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Under fascist regimes woguys were urged to perform their conventional sex role as wives and also mothers and also to bear many kind of youngsters for the nation. Mussolini instituted plans sevecount restricting women’s accessibility to jobs exterior the residence (plans that later had actually to be revised to satisfy wartime exigencies), and he dispersed gold medals to mothers who developed the many children. In Germany the Nazis forbade female party members from providing orders to male members. In a speech in 1937, Charles Vallin, vice president of the French Social Party, related feminists via insubordinate proletarians: “It is not through course battle that the social question will be refixed. Yet, it is toward a type of course struggle, opposing the feminine ‘proletariat’ to the masculine ‘capitalist,’ that feminism is leading us.”

De Jouvenel related woguys with hedonism and hedonism through decadence. Europe, he composed in 1938, had grvery own soft and feminine from pleasure seeking, ending up being “choose a woman who had actually just escaped a frightening accident. required light, warmth, music.” According to de Jouvenel, an environment of “facility” corrupted whatever, and human being had actually come to be progressively unwilling to take on painful jobs. In short, he thought the feminization of Europe had been its downautumn. In a comparable vein, Drieu La Rochelle claimed that educated women undermined his manhood. He defined political motions he disfavored as feminine and those he admired as masculine—fascism, for him, being the a lot of masculine of all.